Three Kings by Lloyd C. Gardner
The Rise of an American Empire in the Middle East After World War II

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As American policy makers ponder a strategy for withdrawal from Iraq, one of our preeminent diplomatic historians uncovers the largely hidden story of how the United States got into the Middle East in the first place.

A breathtaking recovery of decisions taken, brazen motives, and backroom dealings, Three Kings is the first history of America’s efforts to supplant the British empire in the Middle East, during and following World War II. From F.D.R. to L.B.J.,this is the story of America’s scramble for political influence, oil concessions, and a new military presence based on airpower and generous American aid to shaky regimes in Saudi Arabia, Iran, Egypt, and Iraq.

Marshaling new and revelatory evidence from the archives, Gardner deftly weaves together three decades of U.S. moves in the region, chronicling the early efforts to support and influence the Saudi regime (including the creation of Dhahran air base, the target of Osama bin Laden’s first terrorist attack in 1996), the CIA-engineered coup in Iran, Nasser’s Egypt, and, finally, the rise of Iraq as a major petroleum power.

Here, the tangled threads of oil, U.S. military might, Western commercial interests, and especially the Israel-Palestine question are visible from the very beginning of “The American Century”—a history with frightening relevance for the distant prospect of peace and stability in the region today.

About Lloyd C. Gardner

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Lloyd C. Gardner is the Charles and Mary Beard Professor of History at Rutgers University.
Published November 10, 2009 by New Press, The. 272 pages
Genres: History, Political & Social Sciences. Non-fiction

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Gardner systematically demonstrates how Truman’s edict became “a doctrine for all seasons.” In various ways during the next few decades, the United States aided the shaky regimes in Greece and Turkey;

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Publishers Weekly

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Gardner (Pay Any Price ) finds the roots of a fractured and turbulent Middle East in American machinations in the decades following WWII.

Sep 14 2009 | Read Full Review of Three Kings: The Rise of an A...


The misadventures of Hussein are well known, his early CIA and U.S. military and economic support leading to an abrupt about face when he was no longer wanted by the U.S. Egypt was defeated, then stalemated Israel, and is now the nominal democratic puppet of the U.S. absorbing large sums of U.S. ...

Mar 12 2010 | Read Full Review of Three Kings: The Rise of an A...

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